A Kritikal analysis of Kanye’s “Heard ’em Say”

kendrick-lamar
Kendrick Lamar released ” To Pimp a Butterfly” on March 15, 2015.

A few weeks ago, my social media channels where all abuzz with a story about Kendrick Lamar. In an effort to engage his students, a teacher named Brian Mooney started teaching Kendrick alongside a book called The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison. The story picked up, and Kendrick heard about it- it is truly a fairy tale from there. Kendrick visited the school, listened to the students’ cyphers, freestyled with them, offered his own insights, and even held a concert for the entire school. Kendrick talks about wanting to use his celebrity for good, and kept his word without hesitation.

The whole trip started with a single blog post that Mooney wrote, entitled WHY I DROPPED EVERYTHING AND STARTED TEACHING KENDRICK LAMAR’S NEW ALBUM. Mooney talks about the parallels between English and Hip Hop music, and how easy it is to relay the messages of the classics through Kendrick Lamar’s To Pimp a Butterfly. He is right. The complexity of rappers’ wordplay and their multiple meanings is what draws me to rap in the first place. It is the re-challenging of privilege that ignites fires in my blood, and raises goosebumps on my arms. I was an English student, and critique and analysis have since become a part of the workings of my mind. Inspired by Mooney, I have tried to write a short analysis that he might have written or seen in his mind’s eye.

If you ask me who my favourite artist is, I will tell you time and time again that it is Kanye West. The man is a rockstar, and an absolute genius. Heard ’em Say, while one of his more mainstream works, is beauteous in its critique of cycles of poverty and institutionalized racism for people of colour. Kanye’s lyricism isn’t always complex, but it is provocative, as seen on lines such as “And I know that the government administer AIDS“. He isn’t afraid to say what is on his mind, as seen in the Hurricane Katrina fundraiser clip.

Part of the reason why I love Heard ’em Say so much is that the video is as thought provoking as the song. We follow Kanye the cab driver, and a little boy and his mother. The boy packs his suitcase with the help of his grandmother and mother, who both have cigarettes in their mouths. A trail of heavy, perpetual smoke follows the boy and his mother as they get into Kanye’s cab, and travel through the city. The animation comes alive with Kanye’s lyrics, and the boy’s eyes are drawn with exaggerated largeness as he looks at advertisements of diamonds and jewelry, exhibiting his impressionable mind and social sense to copy what he sees around him.  As the woman runs into the gas station to buy lottery tickets “that are put just to tease us”, the boy picks up the cigarettes that his family members chain smoke.  He throws the lit match out of the window into a puddle of gas, and the car erupts in flames. Both the boy and Kanye pass on. This scene is accompanied by the following lyrics:

My Aunt Pam can’t put them cigarettes down
So now my little cousin smokin them cigarettes now

His job try to claim that he too n*****ish now
Is it cause his skin blacker than licorice now
I can’t figure it out, I’m sick of it now

Heard ’em Say offers critique on cycles of poverty and racism when Kanye talks about how “where [he’s] from the dope boys is the rock stars, but they can’t cop cars without seeing cop cars”, which demonstrates that hoods and ghettos don’t give people much to aspire to. Being able to provide for yourself or your family by any means necessary is necessary. Unfortunately, enforcement for change comes in the form of police brutality and harassment, instead of in the form of better education to stop cycles of poverty, and knowledge about privilege to help people of colour love the skin they’re in.

In the beginning of the video, a rich woman and her pampered pooch exit Kanye’s cab. When he asks for his tip, she flips him a nickel, exhibiting her privilege and expectations from Kanye- he owes her. The rich stay rich as the poor must hustle for meagre earnings; “Before you ask me to go get a job today, Can I at least get a raise of the minimum wage?

The little boy’s blackness will detail and define many aspects of his life without his having asked for it, which we see in his death in the animation. This is an all too relevant moment in 2015-  young black men are being killed because the colour of their skin is viewed as dangerous. His mother is left to deal with anguish on earth as the boy moves on. We are able to see death as the only equalizing moment for all lives, and the boy’s wide and impressionable eyes are gone as he does not have the ability to see the world and try to understand it. A world that works against him has taken that from him.

This is the type of conversation that a single hip hop song can bring into the classroom. Just imagine what the entire Hip Hop genre could accomplish. Back to Mooney for more of that.

The 411 on 401 Graffiti

Graffiti has always played a huge part in my life. It covered downtown bridges, alley way walls, we even had to learn graffiti techniques in grade school in art class. I’d cherish the opportunity to look out the windows of the subway car every time I was between Dundas West Station and Keele Station, as the graffiti on the back of buildings is beautiful to look at. When I made the vlog below, there was no question that I’d talk about graffiti and its evolution in hip hop, and outside of it. If you’re interesting in learning more about graffiti after my vlog, check out the documentary Style Wars, which is about New York Subway Graffiti. I’ve also included it below. Enjoy!

The Decapitation of the Buddha.

The appropriation of Eastern religions by the West is nothing new. In the 1970s, “hippies” were drawn to Hinduism the way they were drawn to ganja– there is even a Hindi song about it. These days, globalization has made our world even smaller, and Westerners are able to easily access information on Eastern cultures, traditions, and religions (Hinduism and Buddhism for the most part). The popularity of the two cultures has risen with the popularity of yoga and Western ideas of Eastern spirituality. Unfortunately, the popularity of these ideas have stripped Buddhist and Hindu religious icons of the respect given to them by actual followers of the religion. Focus on Buddha demonstrates his decapitation in the name of aesthetics and “spirituality”.

Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha

Buddha was from India- a prince named Siddhartha. He renounced Hinduism and went on his own path when he was unsatisfied with some of the teachings of the broad religion. Thus, Buddhism was born, and with it a great spiritual leader.

Neo-religious and Western pagan traditions have begun severing Buddhist traditions from their religious fabric. People choose the parts that they like, and discard the rest in their efforts to appear or be “spiritual”. For the most part, it is the aesthetics that are pleasing: the mala beads, and the icons. These icons include Buddha and Budai- many people may be hard pressed to tell you the difference between the two. This is because Buddhism has been ripped from its religious foundations, and turned into a trendy aesthetic decor item.

Buddhism population percentage.
Buddhism population percentage.

There are over 8 million Buddhists in India, and over 70% of the Sri Lankan population is Buddhist. The religion spread widely in the Eastern Asian countries, and that is where it is most popular. Countries with over 90% Buddhist populations include Cambodia, Thailand, and Myanmar/Burma. These people practice Buddhism as a religion, and it is also a part of their culture. The two are necessarily intertwined. Unfortunately, many Buddhists face persecution because of their religion at the hands of others. In 1963, a monk named Thích Quảng Đức even burned himself alive to protest the persecution of Buddhists in Vietnam. He was willing to die for his people, his religion, and the teachings of Buddha. Buddhism is important to followers of the religion in ways that you or I may never understand, as we are not Buddhist. However, we can empathize with groups by showing solidarity and respect to their cultures and historic figures. The Western world needs to learn this in regards to their use of the Buddha as a prop.

stone-garden-buddha-head-statue-40cm-x-30cm-[2]-768-p
Thieves would cut the heads off of Buddha sculptures and statues to sell illegally. Purchasing Buddha heads is a part of a disrespectful history to Buddha.
A walk into any home decor store in Toronto will reveal the cultural appropriation of Buddha and Buddhism. Shelves are lined with Buddha statues and heads for sale. Put them on a table! Leave them in a corner on a shelf to give you “positive vibes”! Put them outside on the floor of your garden as an ornament! Just don’t use them for prayer. Don’t use them for what Buddhists use them for, and disregard the respect that they give to these idols. Buddhists place their idols on elevated surfaces, and lower themselves when praying. Using Buddha for merely aesthetic purposes disrespects traditions that are thousands of years in the making.

An unlikely comparison arises in the way we approach Christianity, and the figure of Jesus. When we think of him, we recognize him as a part of that religion- people do not [usually] use Jesus as a prop, or as an aesthetic device. While many may not see this as a form of respect, it is one; we allow Jesus to exist within the Christian/Catholic faith and do not divorce him from those traditions. Furthermore, one would never consider decapitating Jesus for aesthetics, nor would it be considered a sign of respect if it was done- could you imagine a Jesus head tucked into a corner of a garden? Why should the treatment of Buddha be any different from the treatment of Jesus? While I compare the respect given to Buddha and Jesus, I wish I didn’t have to. As global citizens, we shouldn’t have to understand how to respect the traditions of an individual from one religion by way of comparison with another. It is something we should already realize.

The way the West views the East participates in a tired tradition of Orientalism. It is an ignorant view of the world, and extends itself to the way that people with more power and privilege- the West- decide how they will conduct their relationship with the East on their own terms. When borrowing traditions and cultures, shouldn’t they be respected and utilized in the ways they have been used by people within those cultures? In this manner, how is the use of Buddha as a prop okay?

There is a lot of grey area in the question of cultural appropriation, and it’s not always easy to understand right from wrong. The best one can do is understand how privilege exists within their daily lives, and ask ourselves (or others) if it’s okay to use cultures that we have not interacted with or are a part of. If you cannot believe in Buddha as a Buddhist, or (though some would disagree) as a pagan might, ask yourself how the Buddha validates your existence. Can you receive the same “positive vibes” by engaging in acts that do not disrespect cultures and cultural icons? If so, try to follow those paths instead, and become an ally to other ethnicities as they look for equal footing in a globalized world.

Appropriate Appropriation

Iggy Azalea, most notably known for her single “Fancy”, recently released a statement regarding the cancellation of her “Great Escape” Tour. Jumping from theatres to arenas is no small feat, and it seems that Iggy’s lacklustre ticket sales lead to the cancellation of the tour, though the artist argues against these rumours. While Iggy has been all over the radio with chart toppers galore, she’s also been held under a virtual knife for dissection- how did a young Australian find herself under T.I.’s wing, with the accent of an Atlanta female? Cries of cultural appropriation abound in the greater hip hop community, and they aren’t just targeting Iggy.

Julianne Hough later apologized for donning black face in her Halloween Costume.
Julianne Hough later apologized for donning black face in her Halloween Costume.

Black culture has been the victim of cultural appropriation for years on years on years. When it wasn’t “cool” to be black, there was minstrelsy. White people stereotyped black people, creating caricatures of an entire race while in black face. This may not seem like something relevant to modern society, but it remains a problem that the black community contends with. Black face hasn’t ended, and I mean that in a very literal sense- take a look at Julianne Hough.  “Dear White People”, a film about black students navigating their white college campus, tackles these issues with cunning satire, but also leaves the question of what is right and what is wrong open for the viewer:

Hip Hop itself has been a target of accusations- who controls the black artists we see, and do they further promote the stereotypes that they’ve already been labelled with? Is hip hop music a form of black face? This is an issue slowly changing, with hip hop music increasingly tackling broader issues of being and living as a person of colour, with multiple lifestyles. The questions that are currently being asked deal with appropriation. Why is it okay for [mainly white] artists to exploit other cultures for monetary gain, when people within those cultures are still discriminated against for those very same traditions and lifestyles? The answer is that cultural appropriation isn’t okay- and Iggy might have to add that to one of the reasons her sales weren’t doing so well. Just ask the Huffington Post.  As hip hop becomes increasingly diverse, questions of how to appropriate appropriately come up.

White artists can navigate a black art form with respect, as argued by Brittany Cooper in her article for Salon.com, entitled Iggy Azalea’s post-racial mess: America’s oldest race tale, remixed. She argues,

“Though rap music is a Black and Brown art form, one does not need to mimic Blackness to be good at it. Ask the Beastie Boys, or Eminem, or Macklemore. These are just a smattering of the white men who’ve been successful in rap in the last 30 years and generally they don’t have to appropriate Blackness to do it. In the case of Southern rappers like Bubba Sparxx or Paul Wall, who do “sound Black” as it were, at least it is clear that they also have the accents of the places and communities in which they grew up.”

Macklemore, also criticized for popularity in rap because of his whiteness, at least understands where he is coming from, and whose world he is entering, as he raps on his song White Privilege:

Hiphop started off in a block that I’ve never been to

To counter act a struggle that I’ve never even been through

If I think I understand just because I flow too

That means I’m not keeping it true, I’m not keeping it true

Now I don’t rap about guns so they label me conscious

But I don’t rap about guns cause I wasn’t forced into the projects

See I was put in the position where I could chose my options

Blessed with the privilege that my parent’s could send me to college

Macklemore’s success is largely outside the hip hop sphere, with a fan base who isn’t really into rap. As far as Eminem is concerned, Talib Kweli argues that he’s one of the greatest rappers of all time. Eminem hasn’t entertained racist thoughts, and has never used the n word. He just focuses on being good at what he does. This is in contrast to Iggy Azalea’s slew of racist tweets targeting Mexicans, Asians, and more.

White artists are infiltrating black spaces as hip hop becomes increasingly globalized; just ask J Cole on his song Fire Squad:

There is a right way to do it, and a wrong way to do it- it just entails a bit of respectfor the people and artform that you’re engaging with. As Iggy takes a break to rebrand, she hopefully will find out how to engage with hip hop without stepping over coloured bodies.

6ix God.

Nowadays, when you ask someone about Canadian rap, there are a few answers that may pop up. A few may mention Shad, the older generation of hip hop heads may mention veteran Kardinal Offishall, but the majority will mention one person, and one person only. Drizzy Drake.

Drake is Toron- uh, I mean the 6’s- claim to fame. We knew him before the world did, through Degrassi: The Next Generation. It’s why we’re also quick to point out that there wasn’t ever a bottom for “wheelchair Jimmy”. Drake was on the come up before the come up.

Toronto’s not the only one to make fun of Degrass- I mean Drake’s success. Fans, frenemies, and foes alike target the rapper for being, well, soft. What else could a rich kid from Forest Hill be though? Drake’s emotions make him a target for online witticisms; witty criticism we might call it. In most cases, they’re actually pretty hilarious.

We love to hate the guy, but it’s also evident that we can’t get enough of him. If Drake was a cupcake, he’d be the one with just the right amount of icing. Drake is the feeling of waking up and realized you’ve still got 3 hours to sleep. He’s the exception to the rule “no new friends”. Puppy Kisses. Ice cream cones. Milk that is not spilt. Drake is Toronto’s first snowfall, before the winters get dreary. Our special snowflake is keeping it hot up in the 6, boi. Most of all, he knows that is is all working for him:

I know that showin’ emotion don’t ever mean I’m a p****
Know that I don’t make music for n***** who don’t get p****
So those are the ones I count on to diss me or overlook me

Somewhere in the world, Drake lies in bed, with a glass of moscato on his bedside table. He takes a sip before he pulls out his tablet to Google himself; a part of his nightly rituals. He finds my blog. As he reads this entry, a few teardrops fall onto the screen of his iPad. He hastily wipes them away with the sleeve of his soft bath robe, and carries on reading; “I am strong today, I can finish this,” he thinks.  He reaches the end, sees his lyrics, and smiles.  “Shots fired,” Drake whispers.

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Bhum, OUT.

“Y’all Can’t Match my Hustle”: Hip Hop’s 5 Best Business Minds

Much of a hip hop artist’s content comes from their realities: past, present, and future. For many, the past includes becoming the King of the corner, and hustling their way to the top of that hierarchy. The present includes the new luxuries of their lives, an upgrade through their business savvy. As hip hop artists grow in importance, the future horizons present images of business mastery. The hustle that helped to create them back then is now helping them retain relevance. Here are 5 artists who are are navigating the business side to hip hop with ease.

Kanye Omari West
Kanye Omari West

5. Kanye West

Kanye West once rapped “You know white people; get money don’t spend it. Or maybe they, get money buy a business. I’d rather buy 80 gold chains and go ig’nant”. Apart from being some of the worst monetary advice to follow, it seems that Kanye has done just that- and it’s only made him more money. Kanye’s business savvy lies in his eccentricities and his connections. It doesn’t matter if you hate him or love him, because you can’t stop talking about him. This means that he doesn’t have to try as hard to stay relevant, because the people do it for him. And when they don’t, his wife does. West is making waves in both the fashion and music world. His Nike deal produced the stunning “Red Octobers“, and his new deal with Adidas brought us the limited edition “Yeezy Boosts“. His allegiance has certainly changed, and he’ll be the first to tell you about the new Adidas reign:

When Kanye isn’t doing clothes, he’s doing music, and is an extremely decorated artist at that. With his own record label, GOOD Music,  he has signed artists like John Legend and Big Sean. He’s not a stranger to award shows either, and his stunts have left him lauded and criticized. The more somber and happy Ye can be found by Kim Kardashian, his wife and social media queen. This partnership shows Ye in some of his most tender moments: footsies with his daughter, and actually smiling while getting an honorary Doctorate. Do you love or hate the guy?!

Curtis James Jackson
Curtis James Jackson

4. 50 Cent

He got “a mill out the deal, and [he’s] still on the grind”. 50 Cent is a true born hustler, and it has only made him a better business man. He rose to fame during the growth of gangsta rap, and released one of hip hop’s most highly praised albums, Get Rich or Die Tryin’. Taking the former route, his heavy success brought him deals on deals, such as his G-Unit clothing line collaboration with Ecko. Even as gangsta rap dwindled in popularity, 50 retained relevance through his hustle. In 2007, Coca Cola bought VitaminWater parent company Glaceau, which 50 had a 5% stake in. He made a cool 200 million, while the company was bought for 4.1 billion dollars. He now has ventures in SM Audio, and SK Energy, an energy drink company. One of his latest ventures is his promotion of Effen Vodka. The conflict of earlier days hasn’t been bred out of him, as he is constantly hash tagging #nopuffyjuice to take Diddy and Ciroc head on. 50’s only inadequacy lies in his social media use- he hashtags every brand that he promotes on every post. When you’re worth 250 million, however, people seem to look past that.

Shawn Carter
Shawn Carter

3. Jay Z

“He’s not a businessman, he’s a business, man”. Jay Z’s hustle has been long and strong, and boy has it been fruitful. From Roc Nation, to clothing lines, to a stake in the Nets, it seems as if the only place Jay Z hasn’t been is on the bottom. He currently owns Armand de Brignac, known as Ace of Spades, a premium champagne line that he acquired from Sovereign brands. His wife runs the world, making them a power couple beyond reason- Beyonce once sang “Of course sometimes some shit goes down when there’s a billion dollars on the elevator”. Coming up from success as a drug dealer, Jay Z is now dealing things like paintings instead. He makes a smooth transition from crack to carats, and has managed to strike deals with companies like HBO to demonstrate how far his tastes have come.  A deal with Samsung helped him sell 1 million albums (Magna Carta Holy Grail) before it even dropped. Both deals have helped to elevate Jay from rapper to artist to icon. The only questionable decision he’s ever made has been purchasing “Tidal”, a music streaming service, which still receives much criticism from fans of free music.

Sean Combs
Sean Combs

2. P. Diddy

From humble beginnings as Puff Daddy, to mogul status as P. Diddy, Sean Combs seems to have it all- especially the magic touch when it comes to making the right business decisions. With an estimated worth of 735 million dollars, he’s the guy you want on your team when you need to make it in the world. Just ask the creators of Ciroc, a premium vodka brand, who were selling 40,000 cases before the arrival of Diddy. Now, Diddy receives half of the brands profits, and has helped Ciroc sell over 2 million cases a year. Diddy has now taken his talents to De Leon tequila, and is on a mission to put Patron out of business. Diddy seems to have a knack for beverages, as he also markets AquaHydrate water. With the way things are going for Diddy, we may just need to change the way we mark time- BD and AD. Before Diddy, and After Diddy.

Andre Romelle Young
Andre Romelle Young

1. Dr. Dre

The one simple thing we need to consider when talking about the best business minds in hiphop is the money. The best business decisions make you exceedingly rich. That is why the number 1 spot on our list goes to none other than hip hop’s first billionaire, Dr. Dre. Dr. Dre is known for his beats- most notably those on The Chronic, and The Chronic 2001. Nowadays, he’s known for “Beats by Dre”, his line of premium headphones. When Apple purchased Beats by Dre for 3 billion dollars, Dr. Dre became the richest man in hiphop. The most interesting thing about Beats is that music experts don’t actually believe that they are impressive headphones. The sound quality is really only great for catching head shaking bass, which is what the people seem to want. Beats are also a status symbol- they can be found around the necks of youth as if they are outfit accessories rather than music accessories. As one of the greatest beat makers of our generation, Dre’s name behind the product further certifies their status as impressive headphones. Dre is straight out of Compton, and straight to the top.

Propaganda, Pop Culture, and Politics

The_Marvel_Universe

When Marvel hit the big screen in a big way, the comic book universe experienced a resurgence in their fandom. I was one of the consumers who immediately became a fan. I wasn’t a part of the comic book era, but the X-Men and Spiderman animated series were my childhood- Saturday morning was nothing without them. I decided that I had to start way back at the beginning of the superhero universe- comic books became a part of my life. I couldn’t decide on a single favourite hero, and so I purchased the Avengers Omnibus Volume #1 to stay connected to as many of them as possible.

The comic was brilliant. The images were vibrant, the lettering impeccable. Each story contained so much written content, which was my favourite thing about them. My biggest issue with the comics was the blatant propaganda- an issue that we still contend with in the general cinematic sphere.

I wasn’t the only one who noticed the propagandist undertones- many wrote in to Stan Lee and Don Heck to explain their concerns. In The Avengers issue #22, “The Road Back“, Canadian David Mackidd wrote in to say this:

“Dear Stan and Don,

I have written to discuss a recent controversy that has popped up in the Fan Pages- whether or not you should use Communists and other political figures as villains in your stories. I, myself, am strongly against this for this reason: While this practice should not have any serious effect on your more mature readers, you have in your reading audience some children of a juvenile and immature age whose minds and convictions are strongly prejudiced by such stories…Don’t you think that it is right that these children should be allowed to reach a mature age and make up their own minds about such important subjects as political beliefs? After all there are perhaps thousands of individuals in the world who believe in Communism or Socialism whose intentions are every bit as well meaning as most Americans! Is it fair to slander these innocent people with your stories? I fully realize that your stories are aimed at the bad side of Communism, but they still shed a bad light on the well-meaning persons, too. I don’t think that it is the place of comic magazines to spread anti-communist propaganda… I think that you as editors should not take part in this argument, especially when young minds are concerned…What do you say?”

 Stan and Don’s answer followed:

“…As these words are being written, American lives are being lost in Viet Nam, in physical combat with communists. A cold war is in progress, between the free world and the communists. A continual propaganda barrage against the United States is constantly beamed to the rest of the world by communist nations. Now then, if this doesn’t qualify the reds to be used as “bad guys” in an occasional adventure yarn, then we’ll have to take a refresher course in semantics! As for influencing younger minds, we’d rather they read our little fantastic fables than the pages of Pravda! ‘Nuff said!”

Tony's Captors spoke a mix of Middle Eastern and South Asian languages, from Urdu to Pashto. They also randomly speak Hungarian.
Tony’s Captors spoke a mix of Middle Eastern and South Asian languages, from Urdu to Pashto. They also randomly speak Hungarian.

I had the same questions as David before I read his letter to the editors, but mine were targeted at Marvel movies. In our age, the propaganda moved from a literary platform to a cinematic one, and impressionable young minds were sucked into the fray. We can see this in the first Ironman movie as compared to the comic book. Tony Stark is captured by Vietnamese terrorists in the first issue- the introduction of Ironman comics coincided with the Vietnam War. In the movie, his enemies became an amalgamation of Middle Eastern and South Asian men; either all people of my skin colour were enemies, or it just hadn’t been decided which type of “brown” was to be held in American disregard. This is not the only instance of this happening, especially outside of the Marvel cinematic universe. The reasons for the propaganda against specific country can be explained by way of politics and economics.

In his book, “In Spite of the Gods: The Rise of Modern India”, Edward Luce has much to say of America’s relationships with India and China, both growing economic super powers. “…India is seen as the only country that could counterbalance China’s rise as a global power. America has watched China’s emergence with growing anxiety… The world appears to be on a trajectory where relations between the three big powers will outweigh all other ties as the twenty first century unfolds. The nodal point in the triangle is, of course, the United States. Short of war, however, the United States cannot prevent China from rising as a global power. So America will continue to assist India’s rise as a counterbalancing force…”

America’s fear of China’s power isn’t only demonstrated in its political plays. It’s also a message that has been distributed to the masses. In 2012, the movie “Red Dawn” was released. As China threatens America’s economic power, the movie was supposed to be about an American struggle against Chinese troops who colonize the country. The film was supposed to be released in 2010, but to maintain access to a Chinese box office, the Chinese enemies were traded in for North Korean enemies. One Asian villain was traded for another. Movie goers tweeted their racist feelings without hesitation, and many grouped all Asians as collective villains:

Screen Shot 2015-06-02 at 8.22.28 PM Screen Shot 2015-06-02 at 8.22.03 PMThe interesting thing about “Red Dawn” was that it was a remake of an older film. In the first “Red Dawn”, the villains were portrayed by Russians, who were the enemies of the States at the time. Propaganda really does seem to work on the immature and the ignorant with ease.

Negative stereotypes and portrayals affect our  ability to consider one another as equals, and it’s especially damaging when these ideals are pushed onto younger, innocent minds. It’s a problematic situation for me, especially because I want to enjoy Marvel movies, and other films. Fortunately, I can see the blatant racism clearly- and understand that it stems from fear of the other. Unfortunately, I’m left with a feeling of helplessness when I cannot change what has already been created. We need to create dialogue, and recognize these prejudiced ideals even while enjoying everything else about the literature and cinema that is created for us. Once we are more aware of the issue, we may be able to overcome the racist tones that keep us distant and indifferent to one another. One can only hope.